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Title:

Library Application Profile

Creator:
Rebecca Guenther
Senior Networking and Standards Specialist
Network Development and MARC Standards Office
Library of Congress, USA
Date Issued:
2001-10-12
Identifier:
http://dublincore.org/documents/2001/10/12/library-application-profile/
Replaces:
http://dublincore.org/documents/2001/08/08/library-application-profile/
Is Replaced By:
Not applicable
Latest Version:
http://dublincore.org/documents/library-application-profile/
Status of Document:
This is a DCMI Working Draft.
Description of Document: This document proposes a possible application profile that clarifies the use of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set in libraries and library-related applications and projects. It was prepared by the DCMI-Libraries Application Profile working group, a subset of the DCMI-Libraries Working Group.

DC-Library Application Profile (DC-Lib)

I. Introduction

The concept of application profiles (see Application profiles: mixing and matching metadata schemas) has emerged within the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative as a way to declare which elements from which namespaces are used in a particular application or project. Application profiles are defined as schemas which consist of data elements drawn from one or more namespaces, combined together by implementors, and optimised for a particular local application.

The DCMI-Libraries Working Group has explored various uses of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set in library and related applications and has has envisioned the following possible uses:

A library application profile will be a specification that defines the following:

This document proposes a possible application profile that clarifies the use of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set in libraries and library-related applications and projects. It was prepared by the DCMI-Libraries Application Profile working group, a subset of the DCMI-Libraries Working Group.

2. Namespaces and Format of entries

The DC-Library Application Profile consists of several namespaces:

Format of entries:

Name The unique token assigned to the qualifier
Label The human-readable label assigned to the qualifier.
Choice of Namespace DCMES version 1.1,
DCMES Qualifiers (2000-07-11) or
DC-Library Metadata Element Set = DC-LMES,
DC-Library Metadata Element Set Qualifiers = DC-LMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s) DC Element Refinements used in DC-Lib: These qualifiers make the meaning of an element narrower or more specific. A refined element shares the meaning of the unqualified element, but with a more restricted scope.
DC-Lib Refinement(s) DC-Library refinement, see above; these are domain-specific refinements for DC-Lib.
DC Encoding Scheme(s) These qualifiers identify schemes that aid in the interpretation of an element value. These schemes include controlled vocabularies and formal notations or parsing rules. A value expressed using an encoding scheme will thus be a token selected from a controlled vocabulary (e.g., a term from a classification system or set of subject headings) or a string formatted in accordance with a formal notation (e.g., "2000-01-01" as the standard expression of a date). If an encoding scheme is not understood by a client or agent, the value may still be useful to a human reader.
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) DC-Library encoding scheme, see above; these are domain-specific encoding schemes for DC-Lib.
Form of Obligation In the DC-Lib data model the obligation can be: mandatory (M), mandatory if applicable (MA), strongly recommended (R) or optional (O). Mandatory "M" ensures that some of the elements are always supported and mandatory if applicable "MA" means that this element must be supported if the information is available. An element with a mandatory "M" obligation must have a value. The strongly recommended and the optional elements should be filled with a value if the information is appropriate to the given resource but if not, they can be left blank.
DC Definition Dublin Core definition of metadata field
DC Comment Dublin Core comments to this metadata field
DC-Lib Definition DC-Library definition of metadata field
DC-Lib Comment DC-Library comments to this metadata field
Best practice Recommendations of best use of this element for DC-Lib
Open questions Problems, notes, open questions regarding this field

 

3. Table of Contents

General notes, open questions regarding all/some elements, ...

 

General notes, open questions regarding all elements:

4. DC-Library Application Profile

Title

Name Title
Label Title
Choice of Namespace: DCMES version 1.1
DC Refinement(s) see below
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see below
DC Encoding Scheme(s) -
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation M
DC Definition A name given to the resource.
DC Comment Typically, a title will be a name by which the resource is formally known.
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Retain initial articles and use local sorting algorithms based on language. A language qualifier may be used to indicate language of title if appropriate. (For example, see: Initial Definite and Indefinite Articles for a list of articles in various languages)
Open questions

1) Obligation: what if no meaningful title is available? Either Title or Identifier mandatory?
2) Is there a need to define a Title.Main with instruction not to repeat it if using qualified DC?
3) Earlier discussion indicated that initial articles should be dropped: any more guidance needed here, perhaps for indicating what is to be disregarded for sorting?
4) Is there a need to identify a transliteration scheme?

 

Name Title ¦ alternative
Label Title | Alternative
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers (2000-07-11)
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) -
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition Any form of the title used as a substitute or alternative to the formal title of the resource.
DC Comment This qualifier can include Title abbreviations as well as translations.
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment  
Best practice Retain initial articles and use local sorting algorithms based on language. A language qualifier may be used to indicate language of title if appropriate. (For example, see: Initial Definite and Indefinite Articles for a list of articles in various languages)
Open questions  

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Creator

Name Creator
Label Creator
Choice of Namespace DCMES version 1.1
DC Refinement(s)  
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s)  
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s)  
Form of Obligation See below
DC Definition An entity primarily responsible for making the content of the resource.
DC Comment Examples of a Creator include a person, an organisation, or a service. Typically, the name of a Creator should be used to indicate the entity.
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment  
Best practice Do not use; use Contributor or Contributor.Creator.
Open questions See questions below under Contributor.

Contributor (Combination of the original DC elements Creator, Contributor, Publisher)

Name Contributor
Label Contributor
Choice of Namespace ?
DC Refinement(s)  
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s)  
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s)  
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition An entity responsible for making contributions to the content of the resource.
DC Comment Examples of a Contributor include a person, an organisation, or a service. Typically, the name of a Contributor should be used to indicate the entity.
DC-Lib Definition Includes DC elements Creator, Contributor and Publisher. (These will each need separate table entries to give Best practice information.)
DC-Lib Comment  
Best practice  
Open questions DC-Usage is considering CCP qualifiers; how this will be represented in DC-Lib is subject to change.
Could also be defined as Agent, rather than Contributor (i.e., and use Agent instead of Creator/Contributor/Publisher)?
Implementors who already work with the original DC elements could map to e.g. Contributor.Creator for DC.Creator (and also true for DC.Publisher to Contributor.Publisher and DC.Contributor to Agent.Contributor); see below under Role.

 

Name Contributor ¦ role
Label Contributor | Role
Choice of Namespace ?
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) Role (two further subordinate refinements see below).
DC Encoding Scheme(s) -
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) MARC Relator Codes
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition -
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition Designation of a function that describes the relationship between a Contributor and a resource.
DC-Lib Comment  
Best practice  
Open questions DC-Usage is considering CCP qualifiers; how this will be represented in DC-Lib is subject to change. It is likely that the terms in MARC Relator code list (or some subset) will be used as element refinements to CCP.
Implementors who already work with the original DC elements could map to e.g. Contributor.Creator for DC.Creator. There may be a problem with implementors who use the original elements with a role refinement, e.g. DC.Creator.Illustrator. A possible solution could be to include an additional level (refinement) with the original DC elements. This needs further discussion.

 

Name Contributor ¦ type
Label Contributor | Type
Choice of Namespace ?
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) Type
DC Encoding Scheme(s) -
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) D CAT 1
Form of Obligation ?
DC Definition -
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition The category of the Agent (values to include: person, organization, event, object) as in encoding scheme above.
DC-Lib Comment  
Best practice  
Open questions DC-Usage is considering qualifiers for Creator/Contributor/Publisher; how this will be represented in DC-Lib is subject to change.
It is suggested that an Agent Type vocabulary be established to indicate the type of Contributor (see also DCAT1 above). We will need guidance on how to represent this (liaison with DC-Architecture WG). It is not clear whether it would be included in the metadata for the resource or an "Agent core".

NOTE: Attributes of Contributor (e.g. Birthdate, Affiliation, etc.) will be considered by the Agents Working Group and the DCMI-Usage Board. These cannot be included in this application profile until decisions are made. Encoding schemes also need to be defined for the Attributes, e.g. LCNAF, PND, GKD, TGN, URI, etc. (link to a registry where all encoding schemes are defined?). Each encoding scheme would need to be registered separately. Encoding schemes would include authority files and/or systems of cataloging rules.

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Publisher

Name Publisher
Label Publisher
Choice of Namespace DCMES version 1.1
DC Refinement(s)  
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s)  
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s)  
Form of Obligation See below
DC Definition An entity responsible for making the resource available.
DC Comment Examples of a Publisher include a person, an organisation, or a service. Typically, the name of a Publisher should be used to indicate the entity.
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment  
Best practice Do not use; use Contributor or Contributor.Publisher.
Open questions See questions below under Contributor.

 

Subject

Note:
To be precise, for each refinement and encoding scheme (DC, DC-Lib, etc. defined) an extra definition table sheet would be needed. (For each namespace the respective refinements and the respective encoding schemes are in one table sheet to save space. This will be modified in the future).

Name Subject
Label Subject
Choice of Namespace DCMES version 1.1
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see below
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition The topic of the content of the resource.
DC Comment Typically, a Subject will be expressed as keywords, key phrases or classification codes that describe a topic of the resource. Recommended best practice is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary or formal classification scheme.
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment If a geographic aspect is recorded use the element Coverage.
Best practice It is highly recommended that either freetext or controlled vocabulary be included in the metadata where appropriate and feasible. It is also recommended that a controlled vocabulary be used with encoding scheme specified.
Open questions

May Subject element be used in a unqualified form?

Is there any use for qualifiers Keyword and Classification, or can this distinction be inferred by the use of an encoding scheme?

 

Name Subject ¦ DC encoding scheme(s)
Label ...
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers (2000-07-11)
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see above
DC Encoding Scheme(s) LCSH, MeSH, DDC, LCC, UDC
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition  
DC Comment  
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment  
Best practice Always use the encoding scheme(s) for terms from a controlled vocabulary.
Open questions

Do we want to include an additional qualifier (identifier) to link to a registry where all encoding schemes are defined in a special schema (e.g. based on RSLP schema?). NKOS will probably develop such a schema.

NOTE: Additional encoding schemes will be registered for those used in the library domain (probably all those registered in the MARC list of subject and classification schemes as well as others that are identified).

 

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Description

Name Description
Label Description
Choice of Namespace DCMES version 1.1
DC Refinement(s) see below
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see below
DC Encoding Scheme(s)  
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s)  
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition An account of the content of the resource.
DC Comment Description may include but is not limited to: an abstract, table of contents, reference to a graphical representation of content or a free-text account of the content.
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Use text (and not only a URL) to describe the resource.
Open questions URI has not been approved as an encoding scheme; it should be submitted as a general DC encoding scheme (not just for DC-Lib).

 

Name Description | URI
Label Description | URI
Choice of Namespace To be registered as DCMES Qualifier
DC Refinement(s) see below
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see below
DC Encoding Scheme(s)  
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) Description | URI
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition  
DC Comment  
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice  
Open questions URI has not been approved as an encoding scheme; it should be submitted as a general DC encoding scheme.

 

Name Description ¦ abstract
Label Description | Abstract
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers (2000-07-11)
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see below
DC Encoding Scheme(s) -
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition An account of the content of the resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Use text (and not only a URL) to describe the resource.
Open questions  

 

Name Description | tableOfContents
Label Description ¦ Table Of Contents
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers (2000-07-11)
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see below
DC Encoding Scheme(s) -
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition A list of subunits of the content of the resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Use text (and not only a URL) to describe the resource.
Open questions  

 

Name Description ¦ version
Label Description | Version
Choice of Namespace DC-LMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s)  
DC-Lib Refinement(s) Version
DC Encoding Scheme(s) -
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation O (or MA?)
DC Definition -
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition Information designating the version of edition of a work.
DC-Lib Comment  
Best practice This element refinement will generally not be repeated.
Open questions

Is adding a refinement to Description better than other options, such as a new DC-Lib element? Is it acceptable to leave this as a technically repeatable element?
Should this be "Mandatory if applicable"?

 

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Date

Name Date
Label Date
Choice of Namespace DCMES version 1.1
DC Refinement(s) see below
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see below
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition A date associated with an event in the life cycle of the resource.
DC Comment Typically, date will be associated with the creation or availability of the resource. Recommended best practice for encoding the date value is defined in a profile of ISO 8601 [W3CDTF] and follows the YYYY-MM-DD format.
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Recommend use of an element refinement for type of Date.
Open questions Do we accept the Date element without refinement and/or without encoding scheme?
How to deal with inadequacies of the possible encoding schemes? There are limitations in conveying: 1) BCE dates; 2) non-Gregorian calendar dates; 3) ambiguity, approximation (e.g., about, near, flourished, assumed); 4) partially known dates (e.g., 19?? ); 5) date is unknown/unavailable; 6) open-ended intervals (e.g., 1999-); 7) complex, multi-instance/period intervals. Are there conventions (e.g. bracket, slash, etc.) or other encoding schemes we want to specify to allow for these limitations?

 

Name Date ¦ created
Label Date | Created
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers (2000-07-11)
DC Refinement(s) Created
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see below
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition Date of creation of the resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment Use for the creation of the intellectual content.
Best practice  
Open questions  

 

Name Date ¦ valid
Label Date | Valid
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers (2000-07-11)
DC Refinement(s) Valid
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see below
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition Date (often a range) of validity of the resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice ?
Open questions Do we need a DC-Lib interpretation about how to use this?

 

Name Date ¦ available
Label Date | Available
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers (2000-07-11)
DC Refinement(s) Available
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see below
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition Date (often a range) that the resource will become or did become available.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice ?
Open questions Do we need a DC-Lib interpretation about how to use this?

 

Name Date ¦ issued
Label Date | Issued
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers (2000-07-11)
DC Refinement(s) Issued
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see below
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition Date of formal issurance (e.g. publication) of the resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Use for the instantiation.
Open questions Need DC-Lib interpretation to use for instantiation?

 

Name Date ¦ modified
Label Date | Modified
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers (2000-07-11)
DC Refinement(s) Modified
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see below
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition Date on which the resource was changed.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice  
Open questions Do we need a DC-Lib interpretation about how to use this?

 

Name Date ¦ copyright
Label Date | Copyright
Choice of Namespace DC-LMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s) see above
DC-Lib Refinement(s) Copyright
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition -
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition Date of copyright statement.
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Recommend use if: 1) the value is different from Date.Issued or Date.Created, or 2) the copyright date is known but no value is supplied for Date.Issued or Date.Created.
Open questions  

 

Name Date ¦ submitted
Label Date | Submitted
Choice of Namespace DC-LMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s) see above
DC-Lib Refinement(s) Submitted
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition -
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition Date of submission of the resource (e.g. thesis, articles, etc.).
DC-Lib Comment  
Best practice Recommended for theses and dissertations.
Open questions SUB Goettingen proposes this element for dissertations and journal articles according to the definition of this element in the German dissonline.de project, see Metadaten im Umfeld von Dissertationen. Is this useful to include it in DC-Lib?

 

Name Date ¦ accepted
Label Date | Accepted.
Choice of Namespace DC-LMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s) see above
DC-Lib Refinement(s) Accepted
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition -
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition Date of acceptance of the resource (e.g. of thesis by university department/institution, of article by journal, etc.).
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Recommended for theses or dissertations.
Open questions SUB Goettingen proposes this element for dissertations and journal articles according to the definition of this element in the German dissonline.de project, see Metadaten im Umfeld von Dissertationen. Is this useful to include in DC-Lib?

 

Name Date ¦ ISO 8601
Label ...
Choice of Namespace DC-LMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s)  
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s)  
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) ISO 8601
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition -
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Rules for encoding: ISO 8601 has alternatives, with or without the hyphen (i.e. 2001-08-07 or 20010807). DC-Lib recommends use without the hyphen. If use of hyphen is preferred use W3C-DTF as encoding scheme.
Open questions ISO 8601 has not been registered as a DCMI Approved encoding scheme. Suggest registering as DCMI Approved. Only W3C-DTF is registered, which refers to ISO 8601 (uses the alternative with hyphen).
If this becomes DCMI Approved, it would be listed under the DCMI Namespace.

 

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Type

Name Type
Label Resource Type
Choice of Namespace DCMES version 1.1
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition The nature or genre of the content of the resource.
DC Comment Type includes terms describing general categories, functions, genres, or aggregation levels for content. Recommended best practice is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary (for example, the list of DCMI Types). To describe the physical or digital manifestation of the resource, use the Format element.
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Use a controlled list and identify the source with encoding scheme.
Open questions  

 

Name Type ¦ DCMIType
Label Type | DCMI Type Vocabulary
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers (2000-07-11)
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) DCMIType, see http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-type-vocabulary/
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition A list of types used to categorize the nature or genre of the content of the resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Recommended that at least one value from DCMI-Type be supplied for a high level category; Type may be repeated for a more specific type from another specified scheme.
Open questions  

 

 

Name Type ¦ DC Lib encoding scheme(s)
Label ...
Choice of Namespace DC-LMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see above
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) Place for abbreviation/acronym of used type list.
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition -
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Use a controlled list and identify the source with encoding scheme.
Open questions

To be precise, for each encoding scheme an extra definition table sheet would be needed.
Consider registering those defined in the MARC list of sources as well as any others that are identified as useful. These could be registered with DCMI and become DCMI encoding schemes, not limited to DC-LMES.

Consider discussions for encoding schemes as a result of Type Working Group recommendations.

 

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Format

Name Format
Label Format
Choice of Namespace DCMES version 1.1
DC Refinement(s) see below
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition The physical or digital manifestation of the resource.
DC Comment Typically, Format may include the media-type or dimensions of the resource. Format may be used to determine the software, hardware or other equipment needed to display or operate the resource. Examples of dimensions include size and duration. Recommended best practice is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary (for example, the list of Internet Media Types [MIME] defining computer media formats).
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment  
Best practice Use this element primarily for IMT.
Open questions  

 

Name Format ¦ IMT
Label Format | IMT
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers (2000-07-11)
DC Refinement(s)  
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see below
DC Encoding Scheme(s) IMT
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition The Internet media type of the resource.
DC Comment See also: http://www.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/media-types/media-types
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment  
Best practice  
Open questions  

 

Name Format ¦ extent
Label Format | Extent
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers (2000-07-11)
DC Refinement(s) Extent
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see below
DC Encoding Scheme(s) -
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition The size or duration of the resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice ?
Open questions  

 

Name Format ¦ medium
Label Format | Medium
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers (2000-07-11)
DC Refinement(s) Medium
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) -
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition The material or physical carrier of the resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice  
Open questions Is this useful to include for DC-Lib? Or do we wish to limit Format to electronic (IMT)?

 

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Identifier

Name Identifier
Label ...
Choice of Namespace DCMES version 1.1
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see below
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation M
DC Definition An unambiguous reference to the resource within a given context.
DC Comment Recommended best practice is to identify the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system. Example formal identification systems include the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) (including the Uniform Resource Locator (URL)), the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) and the International Standard Book Number (ISBN).
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Use best practice statement as above.
Open questions Obligation: can it be mandatory? Will there always be some kind of identifier? Or shall either a Title or Identifier be mandatory?
Should Identifier be allowed without an encoding scheme?

 

Name Identifier ¦ URI
Label ...
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) URI
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition  
DC Comment  
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Recommended best practice is to identify the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system.
Open questions  

 

Name Identifier ¦ DC-Lib encoding scheme(s)
Label ...
Choice of Namespace DC-LMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see above
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) SICI, ISBN, ISSN, DOI, (if not included in DC encoding scheme URI)
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition -
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition SICI: Serial Item and Contribution Identifier; ISBN: International Standard Book Number; ISSN: International Standard Serial Number; DOI: Digital Object Identifier
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Use the element Identifier on a more abstract level; identifier for local library holdings like call number could be put into the DC-Lib element Location.
Open questions Additional encoding schemes including those above will need to be registered and would become DCMI encoding schemes. Each will require a separate table.

 

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Source

Name Source
Label ...
Choice of Namespace DCMES version 1.1
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) ?
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation see below
DC Definition A Reference to a resource from which the present resource is derived.
DC Comment The present resource may be derived from the Source resource in whole or in part. Recommended best practice is to reference the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system.
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Use only when the described resource is the result of digitization of non-digital originals. Otherwise, use Relation.
Open questions  

 

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Language

Name Language ¦ ISO639-2
Label Language | ISO 639-2
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) ISO 639-2
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition A language of the intellectual content of the resource.
DC Comment Recommended best practice for the values of the Language element is defined by RFC 1766 which includes a two-letter Language Code (taken from the ISO 639 standard), followed optionally, by a two-letter Country Code (taken from the ISO 3166 standard). For example, en for English, fr for French, or en-uk for English used in the United Kingdom.
DC-Lib Definition Use the bibliographic codes from ISO 639-2. ISO 639-2 is a DCMI approved encoding scheme.
DC-Lib Comment The language code may be used as a value for the Language qualifier to any DCMES element.
Best practice Use codes rather than text. Mandatory if applicable means if there is any spoken or written text, supply.
Open questions  

 

Name Language ¦ RFC 1766
Label ...
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) RFC 1766
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition A language of the intellectual content of the resource.
DC Comment Recommended best practice for the values of the Language element is defined by RFC 1766 which includes a two-letter Language Code (taken from the ISO 639 standard), followed optionally, by a two-letter Country Code (taken from the ISO 3166 standard). For example, en for English, fr for French, or en-gb for English used in Great Britain.
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Use of the ISO 639-2 bibliographic code is preferred. A mapping between both codes is available at http://lcweb.loc.gov/standards/iso 639-2/englangn.html.
Open questions Note that RFC 1766 has been replaced by RFC 3066, which allows for a code from ISO 639-2 when there is no corresponding ISO 639-1 code. RFC 3066 is being registered as a DCMI approved scheme.

 

Relation

Name Relation
Label Relation
Choice of Namespace DCMES version 1.1
DC Refinement(s) see below
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation O ?
DC Definition A reference to a related resource.
DC Comment Recommended best practice is to reference the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system.
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment If using qualifiers, use the most specific one that is applicable.
Best practice Recommended use with qualifiers in certain situations:
- When documents in hand are parts of "host documents" (e.g. journal, monographic series) and when there is no citation information in DC identifier (if used by Citation WG).
- When documents in hand are revisions or reformatted issues of earlier publications and information on these are readily available.
Open questions Do we allow the use of Relation without qualifiers? Is free text allowed?

 

Name Relation ¦ isVersionOf
Label Relation | Is Version Of.
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s) IsVersionOf, further refinements see below
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition The described resource is a version, edition, or adaptation of the referenced resource. Changes in version implies substantive changes in content rather than differences in format.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment Do not include qualifier HasVersion, since this implies that it is clear which came first.
Best practice  
Open questions  

 

Name Relation ¦ isFormatOf
Label Relation | Is Format Of
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s) IsFormatOf, further refinements see below and above
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition The described resource is the same intellectual content of the referenced resource, but presented in another format.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment Do not include qualifier HasFormat, since this implies that it is clear which came first.
Best practice  
Open questions  

 

Name Relation ¦ isReplacedBy
Label Relation | Is Replaced By
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s) IsReplacedBy, further refinements see below and above
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition The described resource is supplanted, displaced, or superceded by the referenced resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment Used for succeeding version.
Best practice  
Open questions Would we use this in a broader or narrower sense than DC defined IsReplacedBy?

 

Name Relation ¦ Replaces
Label ...
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s) Replaces, further refinements see below and above
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition The described resource supplants, displaces, or supersedes the referenced resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment Used for preceding version.
Best practice  
Open questions Would we use this in a broader or narrower sense than DC defined IsReplacedBy?

 

Name Relation ¦ IsPartOf
Label Relation | Is Part Of
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s) IsPartOf
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition The described resource is a physical or logical part of the referenced resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Recommended use when documents in hand are parts of "host documents" (e.g. journal, monographic series) and when there is no citation information in DC identifier (if used by Citation WG).
Open questions Any further clarifications needed?

 

Name Relation ¦ hasPart
Label Relation | Has Part
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s) HasPart
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition The described resource includes the referenced resource either physically or logically.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice  
Open questions Any further clarifications needed?

 

Name Relation ¦ requires
Label Relation | Requires
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s) Requires
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition The described resource requires the referenced resource to support its function, delivery, or coherence of content.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice  
Open questions Any further clarifications needed?

 

Name Relation ¦ isReferencedBy
Label Relation | Is Referenced By
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s) IsReferencedBy
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition The described resource is referenced, cited, or otherwise pointed to by the referenced resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice  
Open questions Needs further discussion as to how used, and how it relates to Citation work.

 

Name Relation ¦ References
Label ...
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s) References
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition The described resource references, cites, or otherwise points to the referenced resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice  
Open questions Needs further discussion as to how used, and how it relates to Citation work.

 

Name Relation ¦ URI
Label ...
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s) see above
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) URI (and ISBN, ISSN, DOI, etc.; if not included in DC encoding scheme URI, additional table sheets are needed. See also encoding scheme for Identifier).
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation ?
DC Definition A URI uniform resource identifier.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice  
Open questions The same encoding scheme(s) as in Identifier should be registered. Each will have a separate table.
Do we allow also free text instead of using URI? If not, the encoding scheme URI should be placed in each refinement table sheet instead of in a separate table. If yes, we should note in each refinement table sheet that either URI encoding scheme (recommended?) or free text (optional?) could be used.

 

Back to TOC

 

Coverage

Note:
To be precise, for each encoding scheme (DC, DC-Lib, etc. defined) an extra definition table sheet would be needed also with information about the obligation. (We put all encoding schemes in one table sheet to save space).

Name Coverage ¦ Spatial
Label ...
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers and DC-LMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s) Spatial (for Temporal see below)
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) DCMI Point (?), ISO 3166, DCMI Box (?), TGN
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) MARC Geographic Area Codes, MARC Country Codes, Coded Cartographic Mathematical Data (??)
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition Spatial characteristics of the intellectual content of the resource.
DC Comment Coverage will typically include spatial location ... Recommended best practice is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary ...
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment Use this element rather than Subject for geographic coverage.
Best practice Use Coverage with qualifier Spatial or Temporal.
Open questions

Do we allow the use of Coverage without qualifiers? Is free text allowed? Additional encoding schemes as noted above need to be registered.

There is a need to evaluate DCMI Box and DCMI Point as for their usefulness for libraries. How do these relate to recording of cartographic data in MARC field 034?

 

Name Coverage ¦ temporal
Label Coverage | Temporal
Choice of Namespace DCMES Qualifiers
DC Refinement(s) Temporal (for Spatial see above)
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) DCMI Period, W3C-DTF
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition Temporal characteristics of the intellectual content of the resource.
DC Comment Coverage will typically include temporal period ... Recommended best practice is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary ...
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice ?
Open questions

Can textual descriptions of temporal coverage go here? Example is a journal published from 1970 to 1980 with content about a period e.g. in the Middle Ages? Since the DC definition for Coverage.Temporal is "Temporal characteristics of the intellectual content of the resource", the "Middle Ages" should go in this element. Do we need an additional qualifier to provide information about the "years of publication" (e.g. for a journal)? Should this go into date (refinement something like range or duration?)?

 

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Rights

Name Rights
Label Rights
Choice of Namespace DCMES version 1.1
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) ??
DC Encoding Scheme(s) -
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation R if applicable (if there are encumbrances)
DC Definition Information about rights held in and over the resource.
DC Comment Typically, a Rights element will contain a rights management statement for the resource, or reference a service providing such information. Rights information often encompasses Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), Copyright, and various Property Rights. If the Rights element is absent, no assumptions can be made about the status of these and other rights with respect to the resource.
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment Follow the ongoing discussion on this element in various applications (e.g. Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System ( OAIS), Metadata for terms and conditions and for archiving in the CARMEN project AP 2/5, etc.)
Best practice  
Open questions Need to determine how to use for library applications.

 

Name Rights ¦ URI
Label ...
Choice of Namespace Register as DCMES Qualifier
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) URI
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s)  
Form of Obligation R if applicable (if there are encumbrances)
DC Definition -
DC Comment ...
DC-Lib Definition A URI uniform resource identifier.
DC-Lib Comment  
Best practice  
Open questions Suggest that this be registered as a DCMI Approved encoding scheme.

 

Back to TOC

 

Audience

Name Audience
Label ...
Choice of Namespace DC-Ed (to be elevated to DC cross-domain status?)
DC Refinement(s) ??
DC-Lib Refinement(s) ??
DC Encoding Scheme(s) ??
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) ??
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition DC-Ed definition: A category of user for whom the resource is intended.
DC Comment DC-Ed comment: Frequently, creators and publishers of resources in education and training explicitly state the category of user for whom the resource is intended. In like fashion, end-users in the education/training domain frequently search using audience characteristics as search terms.
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice ?
Open questions Are any DC-Ed refinements or encoding scheme(s) appropriate for DC-Lib use? Are there any library specific refinement/encoding schemes that would be useful? Suggest MARC target audience codes be registered if this element is considered useful

 

Back to TOC

 

Location

Name Holding Location
Label ...
Choice of Namespace DC-LMES
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) ??
DC Encoding Scheme(s) -
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) MARC Code list for Organizations
Form of Obligation MA?
DC Definition -
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition Identifies the organization responsible for access to the resource.
DC-Lib Comment Use for a physical location that allows the user to retrieve the item when a URI is not appropriate (e.g. for physical items not available electronically).
Best practice  
Open questions

Possible qualifiers: institution name (encoded?), rights information (here or in the element Rights?). Any element refinements or encoding schemes would require a separate table.

For a discussion of this element see:
http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/wa.exe?A2=ind0110&L=dc-libraries-ap&F=&S=&P=60

 

Back to TOC

 

5. Acknowledgements

Thanks to all members of the DC-Libraries Application Profile working group who participated and to the individuals at the Staats- und Universitaetsbibliothek Goettingen for their assistance in the presentation format.

Members of the working group:

Olga Barysheva (National Library of Russia)
Warwick Cathro (National Library of Australia)
Ann Chapman (UKOLN)
Hsueh-hua Chen (National Taiwan University)
Eric Childress (OCLC)
Robina Clayphan (British Library)
Monika Cremer (University of Goettingen)
Stina Degerstedt (Koniglige Bibliotek, Sweden)
Ricky Erway (Research Libraries Group)
Carolyn Guinchard (University of Alberta)
Rebecca Guenther (Library of Congress)
Susan Haigh (National Library of Canada)
Rachel Heery (UKOLN)
Christel Hengel (Deutsch Bibliothek)
Noriko Kando (NII)
Wei Liu (Shanghai Library)
Lynn Marko (University of Michigan)
Heike Neuroth (University of Goettingen)
Trudi Noordermeer (Royal Library of the Netherlands)
Marianne Peereboom (Royal Library of the Netherlands)
Shigeo Sugimoto (University of Library and Information Science, Japan)
Stuart Weibel (DCMI)
Robin Wendler (Harvard University)

 

6. Major changes since last update

This list includes major changes. Open questions at the beginning of the document and in specific tables may have been revised.

 

back to DC-Lib Application Profile: Introduction
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Last update: Friday, October 12, 2001
Rebecca S. Guenther

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