Dublin Core (Registered Trademark) Metadata Initiative logo and catchphrase: 
Making it easier to find information
Jump to main content: This Page
Jump to site map: New Page
The Metadata Community — Supporting Innovation in Metadata Design, Implementation & Best Practices
Dublin Core (Registered Trademark) logo innovation banner Join us logo
 
 

 

Library Application Profile

Creator: Rebecca Guenther
Senior Networking and Standards Specialist
Network Development and MARC Standards Office
Library of Congress, USA
Date Issued: 2002-09-24
Identifier: http://dublincore.org/documents/2002/009/24/library-application-profile/
Replaces: http://dublincore.org/documents/2002/04/16/library-application-profile/
Is Replaced By: http://dublincore.org/documents/2004/09/10/library-application-profile/
Latest Version: http://dublincore.org/documents/library-application-profile/
Status of Document: This is a DCMI Working Draft.
Description of Document: This document proposes a possible application profile that clarifies the use of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set in libraries and library-related applications and projects. It was originally prepared by the DCMI-Libraries Application Profile drafting committee, a subset of the DCMI-Libraries Working Group. This revision incorporates changes requested by the DCMI Usage Board at its May 2002 meeting.

DC-Library Application Profile (DC-Lib)

I. Introduction

The concept of application profiles (see Application profiles: mixing and matching metadata schemas) has emerged within the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative as a way to declare which elements from which namespaces are used in a particular application or project. Application profiles are defined as schemas which consist of data elements drawn from one or more namespaces, combined together by implementors, and optimised for a particular local application.

The DCMI-Libraries Working Group has explored various uses of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set in library and related applications and has envisioned the following possible uses:

A library application profile will be a specification that defines the following:

This document proposes a possible application profile that clarifies the use of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set in libraries and library-related applications and projects. It was originally prepared by the DCMI-Libraries Application Profile drafting committee, a subset of the DCMI-Libraries Working Group. This revision was prepared in September 2002 based on decisions made at the May 2002 DCMI Usage Board meeting.

2. Namespaces and Format of entries

The DC-Library Application Profile consists of several namespaces:

Format of entries:

Name The unique token assigned to the qualifier
Label The human-readable label assigned to the qualifier.
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/,
http://purl.org/dc/terms/,
http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/,
http://dublincore.org/usage/terms/dc/current-schemes/, or
http://www.loc.gov/mods
DC Refinement(s) DC Element Refinements used in DC-Lib: These qualifiers make the meaning of an element narrower or more specific. A refined element shares the meaning of the unqualified element, but with a more restricted scope.
subPropertyOf For "old style" DC element refinements, the element from DCMES that is being refined.
DC-Lib Refinement(s) DC-Library refinement in earlier versions of this application profile are now DC-Refinements or are elements in another namespace.
DC Encoding Scheme(s)

These qualifiers identify schemes that aid in the interpretation of an element value. These schemes include controlled vocabularies and formal notations or parsing rules. A value expressed using an encoding scheme will thus be a token selected from a controlled vocabulary (e.g., a term from a classification system or set of subject headings) or a string formatted in accordance with a formal notation (e.g., "2000-01-01" as the standard expression of a date). If an encoding scheme is not understood by a client or agent, the value may still be useful to a human reader.

In some cases, encoding schemes not yet registered that are needed for DC-Lib are indicated. These will be registered and/or approved by the DCMI Usage Board as DC Encoding Schemes in the future.

Form of Obligation In this application profile the obligation can be: mandatory (M), mandatory if applicable (MA), strongly recommended (R) or optional (O). Mandatory "M" ensures that some of the elements are always supported and mandatory if applicable "MA" means that this element must be supported if the information is available. An element with a mandatory "M" obligation must have a value. The strongly recommended and the optional elements should be filled with a value if the information is appropriate to the given resource but if not, they may be omitted.
DC Definition Dublin Core definition of metadata field
DC Comment Dublin Core comments to this metadata field
DC-Lib Definition DC-Library definition of metadata field
DC-Lib Comment DC-Library comments to this metadata field
Best practice Recommendations of best use of this element for DC-Lib
Open questions Problems, notes, open questions regarding this field

3. Table of Contents

General notes, open questions regarding all/some elements, ...

General notes regarding all elements:

4. DC-Library Application Profile

Title

Name title
Label Title
Choice of Namespace: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
DC Refinement(s) see below
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see below
DC Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation M
DC Definition A name given to the resource.
DC Comment Typically, a title will be a name by which the resource is formally known.
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment A parallel/transliterated title is considered a main title, i.e. the Title element is repeated.
Best practice

Either a Title or an Identifier is mandatory. If no title is available, best practice is to give a constructed title, derive a title from the resource or supply [no title]. If using qualified Dublin Core, an element refinement for titles other than the main title(s) should be included.

Retain initial articles and use local sorting algorithms based on language. A language qualifier may be used to indicate language of title if appropriate. (For example, see: Initial Definite and Indefinite Articles for a list of articles in various languages)

Name alternative
Label Alternative
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) Alternative
SubPropertyOf Title
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition Any form of the title used as a substitute or alternative to the formal title of the resource.
DC Comment This qualifier can include Title abbreviations as well as translations.
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment Assigned title such as uniform or key title is Alternative.
Best practice

Best practice is to use this element refinement for titles other than the main title.

Retain initial articles and use local sorting algorithms based on language. A language qualifier may be used to indicate language of title if appropriate. (For example, see: Initial Definite and Indefinite Articles for a list of articles in various languages)

Back to TOC

Creator

Name creator
Label Creator
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
DC Refinement(s)  
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s)  
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition An entity primarily responsible for making the content of the resource.
DC Comment Examples of a Creator include a person, an organisation, or a service. Typically, the name of a Creator should be used to indicate the entity.
DC-Lib Definition An entity with a primary role in the creation of the intellectual or artistic content of the resource.
DC-Lib Comment Refinements for Creator are needed to express role, as well as structured values to express further information about the creator. They are not included in the application profile, awaiting approval by DCMI of a mechanism to express these.
Best practice Creator and Contributor may be conflated if desired by the application. In that case, Contributor.Creator may be used if desired.

Contributor

Name contributor
Label Contributor
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
DC Refinement(s)  
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s)  
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition An entity responsible for making contributions to the content of the resource.
DC Comment Examples of a Contributor include a person, an organisation, or a service. Typically, the name of a Contributor should be used to indicate the entity.
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment Refinements for Contributor are needed to express role, as well as structured values to express further information about the contributor. They are not included in the application profile, awaiting approval by DCMI of a mechanism to express these.
Best practice Creator and Contributor may be conflated if desired by the application.

Back to TOC

Publisher

Name publisher
Label Publisher
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
DC Refinement(s)  
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s)  
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition An entity responsible for making the resource available.
DC Comment Examples of a Publisher include a person, an organisation, or a service. Typically, the name of a Publisher should be used to indicate the entity.
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment Refinements for Publisher may be needed to express role, as well as structured values to express further information about the publisher. They are not included in the application profile, awaiting approval by DCMI of a mechanism to express these.
Best practice Although some applications may wish to conflate Creator, Contributor and Publisher, DC-Lib maintains the distinction between Creator and Contributor (which may be conflated) and Publisher. If the elements are conflated and Publisher used as an element refinement for Contributor or Creator, the resulting element would be mapped to DC.Publisher.

Subject

Name subject
Label Subject
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition The topic of the content of the resource.
DC Comment Typically, a Subject will be expressed as keywords, key phrases or classification codes that describe a topic of the resource. Recommended best practice is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary or formal classification scheme.
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment If a geographic or temporal aspect is recorded use the element Coverage. It may also be repeated in Subject if desired. If there is a subject string with elements in addition to a geographic, include the entire string in Subject with geographic element also in Coverage.
Best practice It is highly recommended that either freetext or controlled vocabulary be supplied as element Subject in the metadata where appropriate and feasible. It is also recommended that a controlled vocabulary be used with encoding scheme specified. If no encoding scheme is specified, it is treated as keyword.
Name subject ¦ DC encoding scheme(s)
Label ...
Choice of Namespace http://dublincore.org/usage/terms/dc/current-schemes/
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) LCSH, MeSH, DDC, LCC, UDC
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition  
DC Comment  
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment

Note: This table is used for encoding schemes currently defined by DCMI. As additional schemes are registered, they will be included.

Additional encoding schemes will be registered for those used in the library domain based on the MARC list of subject and classification schemes. Including an identifier to link to a registry where all encoding schemes are defined (e.g. based on RSLP schema) needs to be explored.

Best practice If using qualified DC, always use the encoding scheme(s) for terms from a controlled vocabulary.

Back to TOC

Description

Name description
Label Description
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
DC Refinement(s) see below
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see below
DC Encoding Scheme(s)  
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition An account of the content of the resource.
DC Comment Description may include but is not limited to: an abstract, table of contents, reference to a graphical representation of content or a free-text account of the content.
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice It is permitted to link one or more external descriptions using a URI, but to facilitate keyword indexing of the content of the description, it is recommended that a text description also be included.
Name description | URI
Label Description | URI
Choice of Namespace http://dublincore.org/usage/terms/dc/current-schemes/
(to be registered)
DC Refinement(s) see below
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see below
DC Encoding Scheme(s) Description | URI
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition  
DC Comment  
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice  
Name abstract
Label Abstract
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) Abstract
subPropertyOf Description
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see below
DC Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition An account of the content of the resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Use text (and not only a URL) to describe the resource.
Name tableOfContents
Label Table Of Contents
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) Table Of Contents
subPropertyOf Description
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see below
DC Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition A list of subunits of the content of the resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Use text (and not only a URL) to describe the resource.

Back to TOC

Date

Name date
Label Date
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
DC Refinement(s) see below
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see below
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition A date associated with an event in the life cycle of the resource.
DC Comment Typically, date will be associated with the creation or availability of the resource. Recommended best practice for encoding the date value is defined in a profile of ISO 8601 [W3CDTF] and follows the YYYY-MM-DD format.
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment  
Best practice

Recommend use of an element refinement for type of Date. Recommend that dates be encoded 1) using W3C-DTF (structured with hyphens) or ISO 8601 (structured without hyphens) or 2) supplied as free text that does not take the form of a string of numerals (with or without hyphens).

It is acceptable to use widely-recognized practice such as day-month-year where the day and year are represented with numerals and month with a name or standard abbreviation (e.g., "1 January 2002" or "1 Jan 2002"). Avoid the use of potentially ambiguous date representations such as DD/MM/YY or MM/DD/YY (e.g., "04/05/05")

Open issues It may be desirable to establish a DC-Lib encoding scheme or profile of ISO 8601 to cover B.C.E. dates, questionable and approximate dates. This will require additional work.
Name created
Label Created
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) Created
subPropertyOf Date
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition Date of creation of the resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment Use for the creation of the intellectual content.
Best practice This qualified element should not be repeated except when giving date created using more than one encoding scheme.
Name valid
Label Valid
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) Valid
subPropertyOf Date
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition Date (often a range) of validity of the resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice  
Name available
Label Available
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) Available
subPropertyOf Date
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition Date (often a range) that the resource will become or did become available.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice  
Name issued
Label Issued
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) Issued
subPropertyOf Date
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition Date of formal issurance (e.g. publication) of the resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Use for the instantiation.
Name modified
Label Modified
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) Modified
subPropertyOf Date
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition Date on which the resource was changed.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice  
Name dateCopyrighted
Label Date Copyrighted
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s)  
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition Date of copyright statement.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment Decision by DCMI Usage Board May 2002
Best practice Recommend use if: 1) the value is different from Issued or Created, or 2) the copyright date is known but no value is supplied for Issued or Created. If same date is used for issued and copyright date, use only Issued.
Name dateSubmitted
Label Date Submitted
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s)  
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition Date of submission of the resource (e.g. thesis, articles, etc.).
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment Decision by DCMI Usage Board in May 2002.
Best practice Recommended for theses and dissertations.
Name dateAccepted
Label Date Accepted
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s)  
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition Date of acceptance of the resource (e.g. of thesis by university department/institution, of article by journal, etc.).
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment Decision by DCMI Usage Board in May 2002.
Best practice Recommended for theses or dissertations.
Name dateCaptured
Label Date Captured
Choice of Namespace http://www.loc.gov/mods/
DC Refinement(s)  
DC-Lib Refinement(s) Date Captured
DC Encoding Scheme(s)  
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition -
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition Date that the resource was captured.
DC-Lib Comment

This includes the date that a snapshot of the resource was taken (particularly for dynamic resources) if different from Date.Created.

Use existing element <dateCaptured> under <publicationInfo> in the Metadata Object Description Schema.

Decision by DCMI Usage Board in May 2002.
Best practice Best practice is to use as a machine-processible date (ISO 8601 without hyphens or W3CDTF with hyphens).
Name date ¦ ISO 8601
Label ...
Choice of Namespace http://dublincore.org/usage/terms/dc/current-schemes/
(to be registered)
DC Refinement(s)  
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) ISO 8601
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition This encoding scheme represents the alternative provided in ISO 8601 that does not include hyphens as separators between year, month, and day.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment Rules for encoding: ISO 8601 has alternatives, with or without the hyphen (i.e. 2001-08-07 or 20010807). W3C-DTF includes hyphens and is the only encoding scheme currently approved. Alternative using no hyphen needs to be registered as an encoding scheme, since it is well established in the library community.
Best practice DC-Lib recommends use without the hyphen. If use of hyphen is preferred use W3C-DTF as encoding scheme.

Back to TOC

Type

Name type
Label Resource Type
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition The nature or genre of the content of the resource.
DC Comment Type includes terms describing general categories, functions, genres, or aggregation levels for content. Recommended best practice is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary (for example, the list of DCMI Types). To describe the physical or digital manifestation of the resource, use the Format element.
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Use a controlled list and identify the source with encoding scheme.
Name type ¦ DCMIType
Label Type | DCMI Type Vocabulary
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) DCMIType, see http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-type-vocabulary/
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition A list of types used to categorize the nature or genre of the content of the resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Recommended that at least one value from DCMI-Type be supplied for a high level category; Type may be repeated for a more specific type from another specified scheme.
Name type ¦ DC encoding scheme(s)
Label ...
Choice of Namespace http://dublincore.org/usage/terms/dc/current-schemes/
(to be registered)
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) Values from MARC list of sources to be registered as encoding schemes
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s)  
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition -
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment  
Best practice Use a controlled list and identify the source with encoding scheme.
Open questions Consider registering values defined in the MARC list of sources as encoding schemes as well as any others that are identified as useful.

Back to TOC

Format

Name format
Label Format
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
DC Refinement(s) see below
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition The physical or digital manifestation of the resource.
DC Comment Typically, Format may include the media-type or dimensions of the resource. Format may be used to determine the software, hardware or other equipment needed to display or operate the resource. Examples of dimensions include size and duration. Recommended best practice is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary (for example, the list of Internet Media Types [MIME] defining computer media formats).
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment  
Best practice Use this element primarily for IMT.
Name format ¦ IMT
Label Format | IMT
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) see below
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) IMT
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition The Internet media type of the resource.
DC Comment See also: http://www.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/media-types/media-types
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment  
Best practice Recommended for electronic resources.
Name extent
Label Extent
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) Extent
subPropertyOf Format
DC-Lib Refinement(s) see below
DC Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition The size or duration of the resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice  
Name medium
Label Medium
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) Medium
subPropertyOf Format
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition The material or physical carrier of the resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment  
Best practice Used to specify the medium of the physical carrier of a resource. Format without an element refinement qualifier should be used to specify the electronic format of the resource, using the encoding scheme IMT. Format should be repeated if both are applicable (e.g. a PDF file on CD).

Back to TOC

Identifier

Name identifier
Label Identifier
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition An unambiguous reference to the resource within a given context.
DC Comment Recommended best practice is to identify the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system. Example of formal identification systems include the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) (including the Uniform Resource Locator (URL)), the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) and the International Standard Book Number (ISBN).
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment  
Best practice

Standard identifier: Provide at least one standard identifier from a standard scheme (e.g., URL, ISBN, etc.) if one or more standard identifiers have been assigned to the resource and are known to the metadata agency.

Unique-resource identifier: Provide applicable identifiers assigned to one-of-a-kind resources (such as accession numbers assigned to items in a museum collection) if one or more of this class of identifiers have been assigned to the resource and are known to the metadata agency. If the structure of the identifier (e.g., all numerals) is potentially ambiguous it is recommended that the associated agencies' name be included as part of the identifier element.

Citation: Provide a citation if no standard identifier is assigned and a formal citation is a common means of identifying the resource being described (e.g., a journal article).

Use the element Identifier on a more abstract level; identifier for local library holdings like call number could be put into the DC-Lib element Holding Location.

Name identifier ¦ URI
Label ...
Choice of Namespace http://dublincore.org/usage/terms/dc/current-schemes/
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) URI
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition  
DC Comment  
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Recommended best practice is to identify the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system.
Name identifier ¦ DC encoding scheme(s)
Label ...
Choice of Namespace http://dublincore.org/usage/terms/dc/current-schemes/
(to be registered)
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) SICI, ISBN, ISSN, DOI, (if not expressed as URI)
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition SICI: Serial Item and Contribution Identifier; ISBN: International Standard Book Number; ISSN: International Standard Serial Number; DOI: Digital Object Identifier
DC Comment To be registered as encoding schemes (these may also be expressed as URIs).
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment OpenURL may be registered as an encoding scheme after completion of the standard.
Best practice  
Name identifierCitation
Label Identifier Citation
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/ (Proposed)
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) Citation
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition  
DC Comment  
DC-Lib Definition Bibliographic citation information for a journal article, or similar bibliographic resource
DC-Lib Comment This element refinement is proposed by the DCMI Citation Working Group and is under review. See: A Citation Element Refinement for dc:identifier.
Best practice  

Back to TOC

Source

Name source
Label Source
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition A Reference to a resource from which the present resource is derived.
DC Comment The present resource may be derived from the Source resource in whole or in part. Recommended best practice is to reference the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system.
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment

A constructed or derived ID of a local nature may be supplied, including a specification of the supplying organisation, in the absence of a globally unique one.

Best practice Use only when the described resource is the result of digitization of non-digital originals. Otherwise, use Relation.
Name source ¦ URI
Label ...
Choice of Namespace http://dublincore.org/usage/terms/dc/current-schemes/
DC Refinement(s)  
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) URI
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition A URI uniform resource identifier.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment In the absence of a globally unique Identifier, a constructed or derived one of a local nature can be supplied, including a specification of the supplying organisation.
Best practice  
Name source ¦ DC encoding scheme(s)
Label ...
Choice of Namespace http://dublincore.org/usage/terms/dc/current-schemes/
(to be registered)
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) SICI, ISBN, ISSN, DOI, (if not expressed as URI)
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition SICI: Serial Item and Contribution Identifier; ISBN: International Standard Book Number; ISSN: International Standard Serial Number; DOI: Digital Object Identifier
DC Comment To be registered as encoding schemes (these may also be expressed as URIs).
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment

In the absence of a globally unique Identifier, a constructed or derived one of a local nature can be supplied, including a specification of the supplying organisation.

Consider registering OpenURL as an encoding scheme after completion of the standard.

Best practice  
Open questions It is not clear whether DOI could be assigned to a non-digital resource, which is how DC-Lib uses this element.

Back to TOC

Language

Name language
Label Language
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition A language of the intellectual content of the resource.
DC Comment Recommended best practice is to use RFC 1766 [RFC1766] in conjunction with ISO 639 [ISO639], which define two- and three-letter primary language tags with optional
subtags. Examples include "en" or "eng" for English, "akk" for Akkadian, and "en-GB" for English used in the United Kingdom.
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment Language code may be used as a value for the Language qualifier to any DCMES element.
Best practice Recommend codes rather than text, taken from ISO 639-2 bibliographic codes. Mandatory if applicable means if there is any spoken or written text, supply.
Name language ¦ ISO639-2
Label Language | ISO 639-2
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) ISO 639-2
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition A language of the intellectual content of the resource.
DC Comment Recommended best practice for the values of the Language element is defined by RFC 1766 which includes a two-letter Language Code (taken from the ISO 639 standard), followed optionally, by a two-letter Country Code (taken from the ISO 3166 standard). For example, en for English, fr for French, or en-uk for English used in the United Kingdom.
DC-Lib Definition Use the bibliographic codes from ISO 639-2. ISO 639-2 is a DCMI approved encoding scheme.
DC-Lib Comment The language code may be used as a value for the Language qualifier to any DCMES element.
Best practice Use codes rather than text. Mandatory if applicable means if there is any spoken or written text, supply.
Name language ¦ RFC 1766
Label ...
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) RFC 1766
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition A language of the intellectual content of the resource.
DC Comment Recommended best practice for the values of the Language element is defined by RFC 1766 which includes a two-letter Language Code (taken from the ISO 639 standard), followed optionally, by a two-letter Country Code (taken from the ISO 3166 standard). For example, en for English, fr for French, or en-uk for English used in the United Kingdom.
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Use of the ISO 639-2 bibliographic code is preferred. A mapping between both codes is available at http://lcweb.loc.gov/standards/iso 639-2/englangn.html.
Open questions Note that RFC 1766 has been replaced by RFC 3066, which allows for a code from ISO 639-2 when there is no corresponding ISO 639-1 code. RFC 3066 is being registered as a DCMI approved scheme.
Name language ¦ RFC 3066
Label ...
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) RFC 3066
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition A language of the intellectual content of the resource.
DC Comment Internet RFC 3066 'Tags for the Identification of Languages' specifies a primary subtag which is a two-letter code taken from ISO 639 part 1 or a three-letter code taken from ISO 639 part 2, followed optionally by a two-letter country code taken from ISO 3166. When a language in ISO 639 has both a two-letter and three-letter code, use the two-letter code; when it has only a three-letter code, use the three-letter code. This RFC replaces RFC 1766.
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Use of the ISO 639-2 bibliographic code is preferred. A mapping between both codes is available at http://lcweb.loc.gov/standards/iso 639-2/englangn.html.
Open questions RFC 3066 replaces RFC 1766, which allows for a code from ISO 639-2 when there is no corresponding ISO 639-1 code. RFC 3066 is being registered as a DCMI approved scheme.

Relation

Name relation
Label Relation
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
DC Refinement(s) see below
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition A reference to a related resource.
DC Comment Recommended best practice is to reference the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system.
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment Relation without qualifier is optional; where it is qualified the recommendation for the qualifier should be followed.

If using qualifiers, use the most specific one that is applicable.

When no Identifier is available, a bibliographic description may be constructed. Future work will involve developing guidelines.

Best practice Recommended use with qualifiers in certain situations:
- When documents in hand are parts of "host documents" (e.g. journal, monographic series) and when there is no citation information in DC identifier (if used by Citation WG).
- When documents in hand are revisions or reformatted issues of earlier publications and information on these are readily available.
Name isVersionOf
Label Is Version Of
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) IsVersionOf
subPropertyOf Relation
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition The described resource is a version, edition, or adaptation of the referenced resource. Changes in version implies substantive changes in content rather than differences in format.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment Do not include qualifier HasVersion, since this implies that it is clear which came first.
Best practice  
Open questions Future work includes possibly identifying a need for HasVersion.
Name isFormatOf
Label Is Format Of
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) IsFormatOf
subPropertyOf Relation
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition The described resource is the same intellectual content of the referenced resource, but presented in another format.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment Use when there are alternative formats and it is not clear which preceded the other.
Best practice  
Name hasFormat
Label Has Format
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) HasFormat
subPropertyOf Relation
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition The described resource pre-existed the referenced resource, which is essentially the
same intellectual content presented in another format.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment Use only when the described resource references alternative physical formats. Example is the metadata for a home page for a dissertation that references that dissertation in various alternative formats (e.g. PDF, Postscript, etc.)
Best practice  
Name isReplacedBy
Label Is Replaced By
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) IsReplacedBy
subPropertyOf Relation
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition The described resource is supplanted, displaced, or superceded by the referenced resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment Used for succeeding version.
Best practice  
Name replaces
Label Replaces
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) Replaces, further refinements see below and above
subPropertyOf Relation
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition The described resource supplants, displaces, or supersedes the referenced resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment Used for preceding version.
Best practice  
Name IsPartOf
Label Is Part Of
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) IsPartOf
subPropertyOf Relation
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition The described resource is a physical or logical part of the referenced resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice Recommended use when documents in hand are parts of "host documents" (e.g. journal, monographic series) and when there is no citation information in DC identifier (if used by Citation WG).
Name hasPart
Label Relation | Has Part
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) HasPart
subPropertyOf Relation
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition The described resource includes the referenced resource either physically or logically.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice  
Name requires
Label Requires
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) Requires
subPropertyOf Relation
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition The described resource requires the referenced resource to support its function, delivery, or coherence of content.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment -
Best practice  
Name isReferencedBy
Label Is Referenced By
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) IsReferencedBy
subPropertyOf Relation
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition The described resource is referenced, cited, or otherwise pointed to by the referenced resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment May be of limited use in terms of later resources referencing the initial resource, but may be useful to link to a major review or assessing essay.
Name references
Label References
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) References
subPropertyOf Relation
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition The described resource references, cites, or otherwise points to the referenced resource.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment May be of limited use except for other resources that are far reaching or thorough criticisms. Not appropriate, for example, to include all references from the bibliography of the described resource in repeated Relation.References tags
Best practice  
Name relation ¦ URI
Label ...
Choice of Namespace http://dublincore.org/usage/terms/dc/current-schemes/
DC Refinement(s) see above
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) URI
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition A URI uniform resource identifier.
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment In the absence of a globally unique Identifier, a constructed or derived one of a local nature can be supplied, including a specification of the supplying organisation.
Best practice  
Name relation ¦ DC encoding scheme(s)
Label ...
Choice of Namespace http://dublincore.org/usage/terms/dc/current-schemes/
(to be registered)
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) SICI, ISBN, ISSN, DOI, (if not expressed as URI)
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s)  
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition SICI: Serial Item and Contribution Identifier; ISBN: International Standard Book Number; ISSN: International Standard Serial Number; DOI: Digital Object Identifier
DC Comment To be registered as encoding schemes (these may also be expressed as URIs).
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment OpenURL may be registered as an encoding scheme after completion of the standard.
Best practice  

Back to TOC

Coverage

Name coverage
Label Coverage
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
DC Refinement(s) see below
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition The extent or scope of the content of the resource
DC Comment Coverage will typically include spatial location (a place name or geographic coordinates), temporal period (a period label, date, or date range) or jurisdiction (such as a named administrative entity). Recommended best practice is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary (for example, the Thesaurus of Geographic Names [TGN]) and that, where appropriate, named places or time periods be used in preference to numeric identifiers such as sets of coordinates or date ranges.
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment  
Best practice Use Coverage with qualifier Spatial or Temporal; use of unqualified Coverage is discouraged in qualified DC.
Name spatial
Label Spatial
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) Spatial
subPropertyOf Coverage
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s)

DCMI Point, ISO 3166, DCMI Box, TGN

MARC Geographic Area Codes, MARC Country Codes

Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition Spatial characteristics of the intellectual content of the resource.
DC Comment

Coverage will typically include spatial location (a place name or geographic coordinates), temporal period (a period label, date, or date range) or jurisdiction (such as a named administrative entity).

Recommended best practice is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary (for example, the Thesaurus of Geographic Names [TGN]) and that, where appropriate, named places or time periods be used in preference to numeric identifiers such as
sets of coordinates or date ranges.

DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment

Use this element for geographic coverage. The value of this element may also be included in Subject if desired.

There is a need to evaluate DCMI Box and DCMI Point as for their usefulness for libraries and how they relate to current library practices for recording cartographic data.

Best practice Use Coverage with qualifier Spatial or Temporal.
Name temporal
Label Temporal
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s) Temporal
subPropertyOf Coverage
DC-Lib Refinement(s) -
DC Encoding Scheme(s) DCMI Period, W3C-DTF
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition Temporal characteristics of the intellectual content of the resource.
DC Comment Coverage will typically include temporal period. Recommended best practice is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary.
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment The value of this element may also be included in Subject if desired.
Best practice Prefer standard representation of date/time values in DC.Date and
dc.coverage.temporal, although textual descriptions may also be used.

Back to TOC

Rights

Name rights
Label Rights
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation R if applicable (if there are encumbrances)
DC Definition Information about rights held in and over the resource.
DC Comment Typically, a Rights element will contain a rights management statement for the resource, or reference a service providing such information. Rights information often encompasses Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), Copyright, and various Property Rights. If the Rights element is absent, no assumptions can be made about the status of these and other rights with respect to the resource.
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment  
Best practice  
Open questions Need to determine how to use for library applications; there is ongoing discussion on rights metadata in various applications.
Name rights ¦ URI
Label ...
Choice of Namespace http://dublincore.org/usage/terms/dc/current-schemes/ (to be registered)
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) URI
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s)  
Form of Obligation R if applicable (if there are encumbrances)
DC Definition A URI uniform resource identifier.
DC Comment ...
DC-Lib Definition  
DC-Lib Comment  
Best practice  

Back to TOC

Audience

Name audience
Label Audience
Choice of Namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/
DC Refinement(s)  
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s)  
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s)  
Form of Obligation O
DC Definition A class of entity for whom the resource is intended or useful.
DC Comment A class of entity may be determined by the creator or the publisher or by a third party.
DC-Lib Definition -
DC-Lib Comment Approved by DCMI Usage Board October 2001.
Best practice  
Open questions

Need to evaluate whether any refinements or encoding scheme(s) are appropriate for DC-Lib use. MARC target audience codes may be considered.

Back to TOC

Name edition
Label Edition
Choice of Namespace http://www.loc.gov/mods
DC Refinement(s)  
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) -
Form of Obligation R
DC Definition -
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition Information designating the version or edition of a work.
DC-Lib Comment

Being able to specify the version or edition of a given work is often critical to successful resource discovery and identification to determine whether a resource is the same as another one. This is particularly important for resources that change frequently. This is not to be used for versions in the sense of different physical formats (e.g. the PDF version of a textual resource).
Use existing element <edition> under <publicationInfo> in the Metadata Object Description Schema

Decision by DCMI Usage Board in May 2002.

Best practice This element will generally not be repeated. Element should be included if necessary for identification.

Location

Name location
Label Location
Choice of Namespace http://www.loc.gov/mods
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) -
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) see below
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition -
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition Identifies the organization holding the resource or from which access is obtained.
DC-Lib Comment

Use for a physical location that allows the user to retrieve the item when a URI is not appropriate (e.g. for physical items not available electronically). This also facilitates access if the URI doesn't retrieve anything or only a poor substitute. When there is further identification within a location (e.g. call number, accession number), consider using Identifier.

Use existing element <location> in the Metadata Object Description Schema

Decision by DCMI Usage Board in May 2002.

Best practice  
Name location | DC-Lib encoding scheme(s)
Label  
Choice of Namespace http://lcweb.loc.gov/marc/sourcecode/organizations/
DC Refinement(s) -
DC-Lib Refinement(s)  
DC Encoding Scheme(s) -
DC-Lib Encoding Scheme(s) MARC Code list for Organizations
Form of Obligation MA
DC Definition -
DC Comment -
DC-Lib Definition Identifies the organization holding the resource or from which access is obtained.
DC-Lib Comment Use for a physical location that allows the user to retrieve the item when a URI is not appropriate (e.g. for physical items not available electronically). This also facilitates access if the URI doesn't retrieve anything or only a poor substitute.
Best practice  
Open questions Need to evaluate other encoding schemes, including ISO/DIS 15511.3 (International Standard Identifier for Libraries and Related Organizations (ISIL)). May also want to investigate a URI to an entry in an authority file.

Back to TOC

5. Acknowledgements

Thanks to all members of the DC-Libraries Application Profile drafting committee who participated in the first draft of this application profile and to the individuals at the Staats- und Universitaetsbibliothek Goettingen for their assistance in the presentation format. This revision is based on changes requested by the DCMI Usage Board at its May 2002 meeting.

Members of the working group:

Ann Apps (University of Manchester)
Olga Barysheva (National Library of Russia)
Diane Boehr (National Library of Medicine)
Priscilla Caplan (Florida Center for Library Automation
Warwick Cathro (National Library of Australia)
Ann Chapman (UKOLN)
Hsueh-hua Chen (National Taiwan University)
Eric Childress (OCLC)
Robina Clayphan (British Library)
Monika Cremer (University of Goettingen)
Stina Degerstedt (Koniglige Bibliotek, Sweden)
Ricky Erway (Research Libraries Group)
Carolyn Guinchard (University of Alberta)
Rebecca Guenther (Library of Congress)
Susan Haigh (National Library of Canada)
Sten Hedberg (Uppsala University Library)
Rachel Heery (UKOLN)
Christel Hengel (Deutsch Bibliothek)
Diane Hillmann (Cornell University
Noriko Kando (NII)
Wei Liu (Shanghai Library)
Lynn Marko (University of Michigan)
Heike Neuroth (University of Goettingen)
Trudi Noordermeer (Royal Library of the Netherlands)
Marianne Peereboom (Royal Library of the Netherlands)
Shigeo Sugimoto (University of Library and Information Science, Japan)
Stuart Weibel (DCMI)
Robin Wendler (Harvard University)
Mary Woodley (California State University, Northridge)

6. Major changes since last update

This list includes major changes. Most changes are a result from the decisions made at the DCMI Usage Board meeting in May 2002.

Copyright © 1995-2017 DCMI. All Rights Reserved.