Citation Standards

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative - Citation Working Group

24 October 2006

This version: <http://www.dublincore.org/groups/citation/citstds.html>

Editor: Ann Apps <ann.apps@manchester.ac.uk>
MIMAS, The University of Manchester, UK

Status of this document: Completed Working Group Resource

Description: This document contains details of standards, including 'de facto' standards and those under development, which are available to describe bibliographic citations.


Bibliographic Citation Standards and Schemes

The table below lists various metadata schemes, standards and systems for describing bibliographic citations.

Title Resource TypeFormat Comments
AMF, Academic Metadata Format Textual resources used by academics XML Also able to capture information about academics and academic organisations
ANSI/NISO Z39.2-1994, Information Interchange Format (MARC) All forms of material ASCII encoding. Media independent A generalised structure for the exchange of data between processing systems
ANSI/NISO Z39.29-2005, Bibliographic References All types of materials to which bibliographic references are made, regardless of their publication status or the recording medium Text Rules, guidelines and examples, for bibliographic references that should result in unique identification of most print and non-print materials. Intended for a broad audience, including creators, publishers and ultimate users of bibliographic references
ANSI/NISO Z39.88-2004, The OpenURL Framework Key/Encoded-Value Book Metadata Format Books and components (chapters), including Reports, General Documents, Conference Proceedings and Papers Key/Encoded Value pairs for inclusion in a URL  
ANSI/NISO Z39.88-2004, The OpenURL Framework Key/Encoded-Value Dissertation Metadata Format Dissertations Key/Encoded Value pairs for inclusion in a URL  
ANSI/NISO Z39.88-2004, The OpenURL Framework Key/Encoded-Value Journal Metadata Format Journals and parts (Issues and Articles) Key/Encoded Value pairs for inclusion in a URL  
ANSI/NISO Z39.88-2004, The OpenURL Framework Key/Encoded-Value Patent Metadata Format Patents Key/Encoded Value pairs for inclusion in a URL  
ANSI/NISO Z39.88-2004, The OpenURL Framework XML Book Metadata Format Books and components (chapters), including Reports, General Documents, Conference Proceedings and Papers XML  
ANSI/NISO Z39.88-2004, The OpenURL Framework XML Dissertation Metadata Format Dissertations XML  
ANSI/NISO Z39.88-2004, The OpenURL Framework XML Journal Metadata Format Journals and parts (Issues and Articles) XML  
ANSI/NISO Z39.88-2004, The OpenURL Framework XML Patent Metadata Format Patents XML  
BibTex Articles, Books and components (chapters), Conference Proceedings and Papers, Manuals, Theses, Technical Reports, General Documents, Unpublished documents TeX/LaTeX Primarily for maintaining lists of bibliography items in style-independent text-based bibliography files. References can be imported into LaTeX documents according to an appropriate citation style
CiteProc Articles, Books and Chapters Citation Style Language (CSL) plus XSLT CiteProc reads citation references from a source document, collects corresponding records from a bibliographic data store, then formats a bibliography acording to the CSL definition.
DocBook Bibliography Articles, Books Chapters and their parts XML A schema for the bibliography of a document
MARCXML All forms of material XML A framework for working with MARC data in an XML environment
MODS: Metadata Object Description Schema Books and chapters, Serials and parts (Issues and Articles), Computer files, Conderence publications, Maps, Motion pictures, Music, Sound recordings, Mixed materials XML A schema for a bibliographic element set that may be used for a variety of purposes, and particularly for library applications. MARC-based
NISO Metasearch Initiative (Search and Retrieval) Citation Level Data Elements Journals and parts (Issues and Articles), Conference Proceedings and Papers, Preprints, Books and components (chapters), General Documents N/A Required citation metadata elements to support metasearch
NLM Data (NLMCommon DTD) Journal Articles XML Developed to support the supply of article data to NLM
PRISM: Publishing Requirements for Industry Standard Metadata Journals and parts, Books, Magazines, Catalogues, News XML A standard XML metadata vocabulary for the publishing industry
SSSH: Simplified SGML for Serial Headers Serials and components (Issues and Articles) SGML Developed for the serial publishing industry. A Serial Header includes bibliographic information about an article
TEI Header (Text Encoding Initiative) All documents XML

See Also

Futher information about citation formats used in Web pages: Citation Microformats http://microformats.org/wiki/citation

URLs