innovation in metadata design, implementation & best practices

Public Comment on editorial changes to terms in the DCMES

Title: Public Comment on editorial changes to terms in
              the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES)
Identifier: http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/
Date: 2006-08-28

In this document, the DCMI Usage Board proposes changes of wording to labels, definitions, and comments of terms in the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES). These changes will be posted for Public Comment from 28 August to 25 September 2006. Any comments received will be discussed at a Usage Board meeting in Colima, Mexico, on 30 September 2006.

Originally formulated from 1994 to 1996 and revised in 1999 as DCMES Version 1.1, this term set is the basis for the formal standards NISO Z39.85-2001 [NISO] and ISO Standard 15836-2003 [ISO]. The base document used for the changes proposed here is the consolidated DCMI terms document of June 2005 [DCMITERMS].

The changes proposed here reflect lessons learned from many years of user feedback and implementation experience. The Usage Board has edited definitions and comments to bring their language into line with that of the DCMI Abstract Model, which was published in March 2005 as a DCMI Recommendation [DAM].

All of the changes were evaluated by the DCMI Usage Board in light of the DCMI Namespace Policy [NAMESPACE]. The namespace policy says that DCMI terms are identified using Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). In accordance with the principle that distinct URIs should be assigned to distinct resources, the policy sets limits on the range of editorial changes that may allowably be made to the official labels, definitions, and usage comments associated with DCMI terms. By policy, any changes of meaning judged "likely to have a substantial impact on either machine processing of DCMI terms or the functional semantics of the terms" must trigger the creation of a new, distinct term with a new, distinct URI.

In the opinion of the Usage Board, the changes described in this document are all unlikely to have a substantial impact on either machine processing of DCMI terms or the functional semantics of the terms -- i.e., they fall within the allowable range of editorial change. Rather, the changes constitute clarifications of term semantics in light of improved theoretical understanding and implementation experience. They provide the final twist of the lens that brings intended meanings more sharply into focus.

  1. General categories of change

1.1. Replacement of the phrase "the content of the resource" (or "intellectual content of the resource") with "the resource".

 Implementation experience has shown the semantic
 distinction between a resource and the "content of"
 a resource to be a source of confusion.

 According to the DCMI Abstract Model, a DCMI metadata
 description "describes one, and only one, resource"
 [DAM]. In the DCMI context, this principle dates
 back to 1997, when it was known as the "one-to-one
 principle". When the one-to-one principle is
 correctly followed, the semantic restriction to
 "the content of" a resource is in effect redundant.

 Moreover, Dublin Core elements are used to describe
 things other than document-like resources -- things such
 as physical objects and abstract concepts. For example,
 a stuffed animal has a Creator (perhaps a taxidermist, 
 or an artist) but that person is not specifically the 
 creator of "the content of" the stuffed animal. In light 
 of current usage, the meaning of the original distinction 
 between a resource and its content is no longer clear.

 In the opinion of the Usage Board, dropping the words
 "the content of" from definitions affirms the semantics of
 these terms as they have been understood in practice and
 with no significant practical impact on implementation.

 This change is relevant to the definitions of Contributor,
 Creator, Coverage, Description, Subject, Type, and
 Language.

1.2. Replacement of the phrase "a reference to a resource" with "a resource".

 In metadata, a related resource can be "referred to" only
 by means of a "reference", whether that reference is a
 text description or a formal identifier. The extra words
 are therefore redundant. The recommendation that formal
 identifiers be used is retained as part of the Comments.

 This change is relevant to the definitions of Source
 and Relation and to the comment for Description.

1.3. Replacement of the phrase "use a value from an encoding scheme" with "use an encoding scheme".

 The proposed wording is more concise and conforms more
 closely with the language of the DCMI Abstract Model.

 This change is relevant to the comments for Coverage,
 Format, Subject, and Type.

1.4. Replacement of the phrase "use a value from a controlled vocabulary" with "use a controlled vocabulary".

 The proposed wording is more concise and conforms more
 closely with the language of the DCMI Abstract Model.

 This change is relevant to the comments for Type, Format,
 and Coverage.

1.5. Replacement of the phrase "a string or number conforming to a formal identification system" with "a string conforming to a formal identification system".

 A number is also a string, so the words "or number"
 are redundant.

 This change is relevant to the comments for Identifier,
 Relation, and Source.

1.6. Deletion of word "Resource" from the labels "Resource Type" and "Resource Identifier".

 In the DCMI context, the terms Type and Identifier are the
 only two to have used the qualifier "resource" in their
 labels. For example, Title is not called "Resource Title"
 and Date not "Resource Date". The Usage Board proposes
 to correct this by dropping the unnecessary reference to
 "resource" in the labels of Type and Identifier. This 
 change will also bring the labels of the elements ("Type" 
 and "Identifier") in line with their names ("type" and 
 "identifier").
  1. Changes to specific elements

2.1. Format

 The definition of Format as "The physical or digital
 manifestation of the resource" has been a source
 of confusion. For example, it is sometimes
 misinterpreted as referring to a related resource
 -- one that is a "manifestation" in the sense of
 Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records
 (FRBR).

 The proposed wording -- "The file format, physical
 medium, or dimensions of the resource" -- moves
 words from the original comment for Format into
 the definition in order to describe the intended
 meaning more concretely.

2.2. Type

 The definition of Type as "The nature or genre of
 the content of the resource" was found to be
 unhelpfully vague. As with Format, words from the 
 original comment were used to formulate the definition:
 "The genre, functional category, or aggregation level 
 of the resource.

 The Usage Board will be particularly interested
 to hear of implementations of Type that do not fit
 into the scope of "genres, functional categories,
 or aggregation levels".

2.3. Rights

 As proposed, the definition remains unchanged as
 "Information about rights held in and over the resource".

 However, the Usage Board proposes that several
 long-recognized problems be corrected:

 -- That the label be changed from "Rights Management"
    to "Rights". The reference to "management" has more
    to do with possible uses of the element than with
    the substance of the element itself. This change
    also brings the label of the element ("Rights") in
    line with its name ("rights").

 -- The existing comment refers both to a "statement"
    and to a reference to a "service" that provides
    such a statement. The Usage Board sees this as an
    implementation issue best removed from the comment.

 -- The qualification that "no assumptions may be made"
    if the element is absent was removed from the comment.
    The point is inappropriate because it implies that 
    the element can only be used (or not) as part of a 
    fixed element set.

2.4. Coverage

 The scope and purpose of Coverage has been a topic of
 much discussion and interpretation. The wordings proposed
 by the Usage Board address several issues:

 -- Use of the word "extent" in the definition.

    The use of "extent" in Coverage has caused confusion
    with respect to Format (the comment of which refers to
    "dimensions" such as "size" and "duration") and to
    the term Extent -- a refinement of Format defined as
    "The size or duration of the resource".

    The proposed definition replaces the ambiguous
    phrase "extent or scope of the content of the resource"
    with "spatial or temporal topic of the resource".

 -- Reference in the comment to "jurisdiction".

    The notion of "jurisdiction" entered into the
    scope of Coverage at an early date as part of the
    comment and has informed a significant number of
    implementations. The Usage Board proposes to make
    this meaning explicit by referring to "jurisdiction"
    in the definition itself, hence the definition:
    "The spatial or temporal topic of the resource, or
    the jurisdiction under which the resource is relevant".

2.5. Subject

 Two changes are proposed:

 -- Change of label from "Subject and Keywords" to
    "Subject". It continues to be acknowledged in the
    comment that a subject may be expressed with keywords.
    This change also brings the label of the element 
    ("Subject") in line with its name ("subject").

 -- In the comment, advice that the Coverage element
    be used to describe the spatial or temporal topic
    of the resource.

2.6. Language

 Six of the fifteen elements of DCMES -- Type, Format,
 Coverage, Subject, Language, and Date -- are recommended
 to be used with encoding schemes. Only in the cases of
 Language and Date, however, did the comments prescribe
 specific encoding schemes.

 In current DCMI practice, the prescription of encoding
 schemes is seen as being more properly the role of
 an application profile, not of a term declaration.
 The Usage Board therefore proposes to amend the comment to
 reflect this, while retaining references to two encoding
 schemes as examples. Hence: "Recommended best practice
 is to use an encoding scheme, such as RFC 3066 [RFC3066]
 or ISO 639-2 [ISO639]".

2.7. Date

 As for Language [see Section 2.6], the Usage Board
 proposes to change the reference to a specific encoding
 scheme in the comment from "recommended best practice"
 to the status of an example. Hence: "Recommended best
 practice is to use an encoding scheme, such as the W3CDTF
 profile of ISO 8601 [W3CDTF]".

 The intended scope of the Date element has been the object
 of much discussion in the DCMI community. In practice,
 Date has long been interpreted to include the notion of
 a date range. The release in July 2000 of a first set
 of "Dublin Core qualifiers", which included Available,
 defined as referring to a "date (often a range)",
 consolidated this interpretation. The Usage Board now
 proposes to bring the definition of Date into line
 with this long-standing practical interpretation by
 explicitly allowing date ranges. Hence: "A point or
 period of time associated with an event in the lifecycle
 of the resource."

[DAM] http://dublincore.org/documents/abstract-model/ [DCMITERMS] http://dublincore.org/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/ [ISO] http://www.niso.org/international/SC4/n515.pdf [NAMESPACE] http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-namespace/ [NISO] http://www.niso.org/standards/resources/Z39-85.pdf

  1. Proposed changes

URI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/coverage

OLD&gt; Documented at: <a href="/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#coverage">http://dublincore.org/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#coverage</a>

OLD&gt; Label: Coverage
OLD&gt; Definition: The extent or scope of the content of the 
OLD&gt; resource.
OLD&gt; Comment: Coverage will typically include spatial
OLD&gt; location (a place name or geographic
OLD&gt; coordinates), temporal period (a period label,
OLD&gt; date, or date range) or jurisdiction (such as a
OLD&gt; named administrative entity). Recommended best
OLD&gt; practice is to select a value from a controlled
OLD&gt; vocabulary (for example, the Thesaurus of
OLD&gt; Geographic Names [TGN]) and that, where
OLD&gt; appropriate, named places or time periods be
OLD&gt; used in preference to numeric identifiers such
OLD&gt; as sets of coordinates or date ranges.

NEW&gt; Documented at: <a name="coverage" href="/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#coverage">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#coverage</a>

NEW&gt; Label: Coverage
NEW&gt; Definition: The spatial or temporal topic of the resource, or 
NEW&gt; the jurisdiction under which the resource is relevant.
NEW&gt; Comment: Spatial topic may be a named place or a location 
NEW&gt; specified by its geographic coordinates. Temporal
NEW&gt; period may be a named period, date, or date
NEW&gt; range. A jurisdiction may be a named administrative
NEW&gt; entity. Recommended best practice is to use a 
NEW&gt; a controlled vocabulary such as the Thesaurus of
NEW&gt; Geographic Names [TGN]). Where appropriate, named 
NEW&gt; places or time periods can be used in preference
NEW&gt; to numeric identifiers such as sets of coordinates
NEW&gt; or date ranges.

Changes proposed:
-- In definition, replaces "content of the resource" with "resource" 
   [see Section 1.1]
-- In comment, replaces "use a value from an encoding scheme" with "use an 
   encoding scheme" [see Section 1.3]
-- In comment, replaces the phrase "use a value from a controlled 
   vocabulary" with "use a controlled vocabulary" [see Section 1.4]
-- In definition, replaced ambiguous phrase "extent or scope of 
   the content of the resource" with "spatial or temporal topic of 
   the resource" [see Section 2.4]
-- In definition, added reference to "jurisdiction", hitherto 
   mentioned only in the comment [see Section 2.4]

URI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/description

OLD&gt; Documented at: <a href="/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#description">http://dublincore.org/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#description</a>

OLD&gt; Label: Description
OLD&gt; Definition: An account of the content of the resource.
OLD&gt; Comment: Description may include but is not limited 
OLD&gt; to: an abstract, table of contents, reference
OLD&gt; to a graphical representation of content or a
OLD&gt; free-text account of the content.

NEW&gt; Documented at: <a name="description" href="/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#description">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#description</a>

NEW&gt; Label: Description
NEW&gt; Definition: An account of the resource.
NEW&gt; Comment: Description may include but is not limited to:
NEW&gt; an abstract, a table of contents, a graphical
NEW&gt; representation, or a free-text account of
NEW&gt; the resource.

Changes proposed:
-- In definition, replaces "content of the resource" with "resource" 
   [see Section 1.1]
-- In comment, replaces "a reference to a resource" with "resource" 
   [see Section 1.2]

URI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/contributor

OLD&gt; Documented at: <a href="/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#contributor">http://dublincore.org/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#contributor</a>

OLD&gt; Label: Contributor
OLD&gt; Definition: An entity primarily responsible for making 
OLD&gt; contributions to the content of the resource.
OLD&gt; Comment: Examples of a Contributor include a person,
OLD&gt; an organisation, or a service. Typically, the
OLD&gt; name of a Contributor should be used to indicate
OLD&gt; the entity.

NEW&gt; Documented at: <a name="contributor" href="/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#contributor">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#contributor</a>

NEW&gt; Label: Contributor
NEW&gt; Definition: An entity primarily responsible for making
NEW&gt; contributions to the resource.
NEW&gt; Comment: Examples of a Contributor include a person,
NEW&gt; an organisation, or a service. Typically, the
NEW&gt; name of a Contributor should be used to indicate
NEW&gt; the entity.

Changes proposed:
-- In definition, replaces "content of the resource" with "resource" 
   [see Section 1.1]

URI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/creator

OLD&gt; Documented at: <a href="/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#creator">http://dublincore.org/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#creator</a>

OLD&gt; Label: Creator
OLD&gt; Definition: An entity primarily responsible for making 
OLD&gt; the content of the resource.
OLD&gt; Comment: Examples of a Creator include a person, an
OLD&gt; organisation, or a service. Typically, the name
OLD&gt; of a Creator should be used to indicate the entity.

NEW&gt; Documented at: <a name="creator" href="/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#creator">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#creator</a>

NEW&gt; Label: Creator
NEW&gt; Definition: An entity primarily responsible for making 
NEW&gt; the resource.
NEW&gt; Comment: Examples of a Creator include a person, an
NEW&gt; organisation, or a service. Typically, the name
NEW&gt; of a Creator should be used to indicate the entity.

Changes proposed:
-- In definition, replaces "content of the resource" with "resource" 
   [see Section 1.1]

URI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/identifier

OLD&gt; Documented at: <a href="/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#identifier">http://dublincore.org/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#identifier</a>

OLD&gt; Label: Resource Identifier
OLD&gt; Definition: An unambiguous reference to the resource within
OLD&gt; a given context.
OLD&gt; Comment: Recommended best practice is to identify the
OLD&gt; resource by means of a string or number conforming
OLD&gt; to a formal identification system. Formal
OLD&gt; identification systems include but are not
OLD&gt; limited to the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
OLD&gt; (including the Uniform Resource Locator (URL)),
OLD&gt; the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) and the
OLD&gt; International Standard Book Number (ISBN).

NEW&gt; Documented at: <a name="identifier" href="/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#identifier">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#identifier</a>

NEW&gt; Label: Identifier
OLD&gt; Definition: An unambiguous reference to the resource within
OLD&gt; a given context.
NEW&gt; Comment: Recommended best practice is to identify the
NEW&gt; resource by means of a string conforming
NEW&gt; to a formal identification system. 

Changes proposed:
-- Definition unchanged.
-- In comment, replaces "a string or number conforming to a formal 
   identification system" with "a string conforming to a formal 
   identification system" [see Section 1.5]
-- In label, changed "Resource Identifier" to "Identifier" [see Section 1.6]
-- In comment, changed punctuation [see also Relation and Source].
-- In comment, deleted references to URI, URL, DOI, and ISBN

URI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/format

OLD&gt; Documented at: <a href="/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#format">http://dublincore.org/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#format</a>

OLD&gt; Label: Format
OLD&gt; Definition: The physical or digital manifestation of 
OLD&gt; the resource.
OLD&gt; Comment: Typically, Format may include the media-type 
OLD&gt; or dimensions of the resource. Format may be
OLD&gt; used to identify the software, hardware or
OLD&gt; other equipment needed to display or operate
OLD&gt; the resource. Examples of dimensions include
OLD&gt; size and duration. Recommended best practice is
OLD&gt; to select a value from a controlled vocabulary
OLD&gt; (for example, the list of Internet Media Types
OLD&gt; [MIME] defining computer media formats).

NEW&gt; Documented at: <a name="format" href="/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#format">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#format</a>

NEW&gt; Label: Format
NEW&gt; Definition: The file format, physical medium, or dimensions
NEW&gt; of the resource.
NEW&gt; Comment: Examples of dimensions include
NEW&gt; size and duration. Recommended best practice is
NEW&gt; to use a controlled vocabulary such as the list
NEW&gt; of Internet Media Types [MIME].

Changes proposed:
-- In definition, replaces "content of the resource" with "resource" 
   [see Section 1.1]
-- In comment, replaces "use a value from an encoding scheme" with "use an 
   encoding scheme" [see Section 1.3]

URI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/language

OLD&gt; Documented at: <a href="/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#language">http://dublincore.org/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#language</a>

OLD&gt; Label: Language
OLD&gt; Definition: A language of the intellectual content of 
OLD&gt; the resource.
OLD&gt; Comment: Recommended best practice is to use RFC 3066
OLD&gt; [RFC3066], which, in conjunction with ISO 639
OLD&gt; [ISO639], defines two- and three-letter primary
OLD&gt; language tags with optional subtags. Examples
OLD&gt; include "en" or "eng" for English, "akk" for
OLD&gt; Akkadian, and "en-GB" for English used in the
OLD&gt; United Kingdom.

NEW&gt; Documented at: <a name="language" href="/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#language">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#language</a>

NEW&gt; Label: Language
NEW&gt; Definition: A language of the resource.
NEW&gt; Comment: Recommended best practice is to use an encoding 
NEW&gt; scheme, such as RFC 3066 [RFC3066] or ISO 
NEW&gt; 639-2 [ISO639].

Changes proposed:
-- In definition, replaces "content of the resource" with "resource" 
   [see Section 1.1]
   Definitions of Contributor, Creator, Coverage, Description, Subject, Type, Language
-- In comment, changed references to encoding schemes from "recommended 
   best practice" to the status of examples [see Section 2.6]

URI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/relation

OLD&gt; Documented at: <a href="/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#relation">http://dublincore.org/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#relation</a>

OLD&gt; Label: Relation
OLD&gt; Definition: A reference to a related resource.
OLD&gt; Comment: Recommended best practice is to identify the resource by means
OLD&gt; of a string or number conforming to a formal identification
OLD&gt; system. Formal identification systems include but are not
OLD&gt; limited to the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) (including the
OLD&gt; Uniform Resource Locator (URL)), the Digital Object Identifier
OLD&gt; (DOI) and the International Standard Book Number (ISBN).

NEW&gt; Documented at: <a name="relation" href="/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#relation">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#relation</a>

NEW&gt; Label: Relation
NEW&gt; Definition: A related resource.
NEW&gt; Comment: Recommended best practice is to identify the
NEW&gt; related resource by means of a string conforming
NEW&gt; to a formal identification system. 

Changes proposed:
-- In definition, replaces "a reference to a resource" with "resource" 
   [see Section 1.2]
-- In comment, replaces "a string or number conforming to a formal 
   identification system" with "a string conforming to a formal 
   identification system" [see Section 1.5]
-- In comment, changed punctuation [see also Identifier and Source].
-- In comment, deleted references to URI, URL, DOI, and ISBN

URI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/rights

OLD&gt; Documented at: <a href="/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#rights">http://dublincore.org/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#rights</a>

OLD&gt; Label: Rights Management
OLD&gt; Definition: Information about rights held in and 
OLD&gt; over the resource.
OLD&gt; Comment: Typically, Rights will contain a rights management
OLD&gt; statement for the resource, or reference a service
OLD&gt; providing such information. Rights information
OLD&gt; often encompasses Intellectual Property Rights
OLD&gt; (IPR), Copyright, and various Property Rights. If
OLD&gt; the Rights element is absent, no assumptions may be
OLD&gt; made about any rights held in or over the resource.

NEW&gt; Documented at: <a name="rights" href="/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#rights">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#rights</a>

NEW&gt; Label: Rights
NEW&gt; Definition: Information about rights held in and 
NEW&gt; over the resource.
NEW&gt; Comment: Typically, rights information includes 
NEW&gt; a statement about various property rights 
NEW&gt; associated with the resource, including 
NEW&gt; intellectual property rights.

Changes proposed:
-- Definition is unchanged
-- Label changed from "Rights Management" to "Rights" [see Section 2.3]
-- In comment, deleted reference to a "service providing information
   [see Section 2.3]
-- In comment, deleted qualification that "no assumptions may be made"
   if the element is absent [see Section 2.3]

URI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/source

OLD&gt; Documented at: <a href="/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#source">http://dublincore.org/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#source</a>

OLD&gt; Label: Source
OLD&gt; Definition: A Reference to a resource from which the 
OLD&gt; present resource is derived.
OLD&gt; Comment: The present resource may be derived from 
OLD&gt; the Source resource in whole or in part. 
OLD&gt; Recommended best practice is to identify the
OLD&gt; referenced resource by means of a string or number
OLD&gt; conforming to a formal identification system.

NEW&gt; Documented at: <a name="source" href="/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#source">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#source</a>

NEW&gt; Label: Source
NEW&gt; Definition: A related resource from which the described 
NEW&gt; resource is derived.
NEW&gt; Comment: The described resource may be derived from the
NEW&gt; related resource in whole or in part. Recommended
NEW&gt; best practice is to identify the related resource
NEW&gt; by means of a string conforming to a formal
NEW&gt; identification system.

Applicable:
-- In definition, replaces "a reference to a resource" with "resource" 
   [see Section 1.2]
-- In comment, replaces "a string or number conforming to a formal 
   identification system" with "a string conforming to a formal 
   identification system" [see Section 1.5]
-- In comment, changed punctuation [see also Identifier and Relation]

URI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/subject

OLD&gt; Documented at: <a href="/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#subject">http://dublincore.org/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#subject</a>

OLD&gt; Label: Subject and Keywords
OLD&gt; Definition: The topic of the content of the resource.
OLD&gt; Comment: Typically, a Subject will be expressed as keywords,
OLD&gt; key phrases or classification codes that describe
OLD&gt; a topic of the resource. Recommended best practice
OLD&gt; is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary
OLD&gt; or formal classification scheme.

NEW&gt; Documented at: <a name="subject" href="/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#subject">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#subject</a>

NEW&gt; Label: Subject
NEW&gt; Definition: The topic of the resource.
NEW&gt; Comment: Typically, the topic will be represented using
NEW&gt; keywords, key phrases, or classification codes.
NEW&gt; Recommended best practice is to use an encoding
NEW&gt; scheme such as a classification or a controlled
NEW&gt; vocabulary. To describe the spatial or temporal 
NEW&gt; topic of the resource, use the Coverage element.

Changes proposed:
-- In definition, replaces "content of the resource" with "resource" 
   [see Section 1.1]
-- In comment, replaces "use a value from an encoding scheme" with "use an 
   encoding scheme" [see Section 1.3]
-- Label changed from "Subject and Keywords" to "Subject" [see 
   Section 2.5]
-- In comment, added pointer to the Coverage element [see Section 2.5]
-- In comment, "expressed as" reworded as "represented using".

URI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/type

OLD&gt; Documented at: <a href="/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#type">http://dublincore.org/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#type</a>

OLD&gt; Label: Resource Type
OLD&gt; Definition: The nature or genre of the content of the resource.
OLD&gt; Comment: Type includes terms describing general categories,
OLD&gt; functions, genres, or aggregation levels for
OLD&gt; content. Recommended best practice is to select a
OLD&gt; value from a controlled vocabulary (for example,
OLD&gt; the DCMI Type Vocabulary [DCMITYPE]). To describe
OLD&gt; the physical or digital manifestation of the
OLD&gt; resource, use the Format element.

NEW&gt; Documented at: <a name="type" href="/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#type">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#type</a>

NEW&gt; Label: Type
NEW&gt; Definition: The genre, functional category, or aggregation level 
NEW&gt; of the resource.
NEW&gt; Comment: Recommended best practice is to use a controlled
NEW&gt; vocabulary such as the the DCMI Type Vocabulary
NEW&gt; [DCMITYPE]). To describe the file format, physical
NEW&gt; medium, or dimensions of the resource, use the
NEW&gt; Format element.

Changes proposed:
-- In label, changed "Resource Type" to "Type" [see Section 1.6]
-- In definition, replaces "content of the resource" with "resource" 
   [see Section 1.1]
-- In comment, replaces "use a value from an encoding scheme" with "use an 
   encoding scheme" [see Section 1.3]
-- In comment, replaces the phrase "use a value from a controlled 
   vocabulary" with "use a controlled vocabulary" [see Section 1.4]
-- Definition reworded for concreteness [see Section 2.2]

URI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/date

OLD&gt; Documented at: <a href="/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#date">http://dublincore.org/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#date</a>

OLD&gt; Label: Date
OLD&gt; Definition: A date associated with an event in the life cycle
OLD&gt; of the resource.
OLD&gt; Comment: Typically, Date will be associated
OLD&gt; with the creation or availability of the
OLD&gt; resource. Recommended best practice for encoding
OLD&gt; the date value is defined in a profile of ISO 8601
OLD&gt; [W3CDTF] and follows the YYYY-MM-DD format.

NEW&gt; Documented at: <a name="date" href="/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#date">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#date</a>

NEW&gt; Label: Date
NEW&gt; Definition: A point or period of time associated with an 
NEW&gt; event in the lifecycle of the resource.
NEW&gt; Comment: Date may be used to express temporal information
NEW&gt; at any level of granularity. Recommended best 
NEW&gt; practice is to use an encoding scheme, such as 
NEW&gt; the W3CDTF profile of ISO 8601 [W3CDTF].

Changes proposed:
-- In comment, changed the reference to an encoding scheme from 
   "recommended best practice" to the status of an example [see Section 2.7]
-- In definition, explicitly allowed ranges [see Section 2.7]

URI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/publisher

OLD&gt; Documented at: <a href="/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#publisher">http://dublincore.org/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#publisher</a>

OLD&gt; Label: Publisher
OLD&gt; Definition: An entity responsible for making the resource 
OLD&gt; available
OLD&gt; Comment: Examples of a Publisher include a person, an
OLD&gt; organisation, or a service. Typically, the name of
OLD&gt; a Publisher should be used to indicate the entity.

NEW&gt; Documented at: <a name="publisher" href="/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#publisher">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#publisher</a>

NEW&gt; Label: Publisher
NEW&gt; Definition: An entity responsible for making the resource 
NEW&gt; available.
NEW&gt; Comment: Examples of a Publisher include a person, an
NEW&gt; organisation, or a service. Typically, the name of
NEW&gt; a Publisher should be used to indicate the entity.

Changes proposed:
-- In definition, addition of missing full stop.

URI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/title

OLD&gt; Documented at: <a href="/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#title">http://dublincore.org/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/#title</a>

OLD&gt; Label: Title
OLD&gt; Definition: A name given to the resource.
OLD&gt; Comment: Typically, a Title will be a name by which 
OLD&gt; the resource is formally known.

NEW&gt; Documented at: <a name="title" href="/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#title">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2006/08/dcmes-changes/#title</a>

NEW&gt; Label: Title
NEW&gt; Definition: A name given to the resource.
NEW&gt; Comment: Typically, a Title will be a name by which 
NEW&gt; the resource is formally known.

No changes proposed.

Errata 2006-12-04: removed redundant URLs.